China came up with yet another phlegmatic act on the Doklam standoff with India by publishing a 15-page document titled “The Facts and China’s Position”. Here are the ten main points of the document:
1. Convention Between Great Britain and China Relating to Sikkim and Tibet, a document signed in 1890 between the UK and China delimited the boundary between Tibet region of China and Sikkim. According to the convention, the Doklam region “is indisputably Chinese territory”.
2. The convention was validated by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru in letters to the then Chinese premier Chou En-lai, in diplomatic notes from the Indian Embassy in Beijing (then Peking) to the Chinese Foreign Ministry and in documents provided by the Indian side to the Special Representatives Talks on the China-India Boundary Question.
3. India “illegally” crossed the China-India boundary at Doklam and since the incident occurred in an already-delimited boundary, it constituted an act “fundamentally different” from past frictions between the border troops of the two sides. It is a “very serious incident” as it violates China’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.
4. “Since the incident broke out, India has invented various excuses to justify its illegal action, but its arguments have no factual or legal grounds at all and are simply untenable.”
5. Although the boundary between China and Bhutan in the Doklam region has to be “formally delimited”, India, as a third party, does not have any “right to interfere in or impede the boundary talks between China and Bhutan, still less the right to make territorial claims on Bhutan’s behalf. India’s intrusion into the Chinese territory under the pretext of Bhutan has not only violated China’s territorial sovereignty but also challenged Bhutan’s.”
6. Indian troops have constructed a large number of infrastructure facilities including roads at the Doklam pass. Troops have built fortifications and military installations along the boundary. China, on the contrary, has very little infrastructure on its side. “It is India that has attempted time and again to change the status quo of the China-India boundary in Sikkim,” said the document.
7. China has shown great restraint by seeking to communicate with India through diplomatic channels. But should it feel necessary, “China will take all necessary measures to safeguard its legitimate and lawful rights and interests.” Since the incident took place in Chinese territory, India should unconditionally withdraw all troops from the region.
8. The 1890 Convention was signed between China and Britain. India and China should sign a new boundary convention in their own names; however, it should not alter the status of the China-India boundary that was already delimited.
9. China was building in its own territory aimed at improving local transportation. Indian border troops flagrantly crossed the mutually-recognised boundary to intrude into Chinese territory.
10. According to UN General Assembly Resolution 3314, there can be no justification - economic, military or otherwise - for invasion or attack by armed forces of a country. To cross a neighbouring country on the grounds of so-called “security concerns”, for whatever activities, runs counter to the basic principles of international law and basic norms governing international relations.