NEW DELHI: Vijay Mallya was arrested by Scotland Yard and released on bail in connection with an extradition request filed by India. India and the UK signed an extradition treaty in 1993. Since then, India has requested the extradition of 131 accused, but has managed to get only one 'fugitive' - Samirbhai Vinubyhai Patel - back. Patel, an Indian citizen, was accused of murder.
Extradition is possible only in cases that are seen as crimes in both the countries in question.
In the past, the Indian government failed to get a favourable judgment from a UK court in the Nadeem Saifi extradition case. In 1997, India sought Saifi's custody in relation to the Gulshan Kumar murder case, in which Gangster Abu Salem was the main accused.
The UK has strong human rights laws, which make extradition of a person very difficult. India is among Category II countries under the UK's extradition laws. Category II cases take much more time to complete than Category I cases. The United States and most European countries are in Category I.
India has extradition treaties with 47 countries, but till date has managed to get only 62 accused extradited. Eight of them were extradited in 2005 and seven each in 2003 and 2004. Six fugitives were extradited in 2015.
Out of the 62 fugitives extradited since 2002, 14 were involved in murder-related offences and 10 in offences related to criminal conspiracy. Nine fugitives were extradited for terrorism-related offences, including three from the United Arab Emirates in relation to the 1993 Mumbai bomb blasts.
The US, UAE, UK, Canada, Germany, Nepal, Bangladesh, Iran, Singapore, Australia, Nigeria, Denmark, South Africa and France are among the 47 countries with which India has inked extradition treaties. India has signed extradition arrangements with nine other countries.
Apart from Mallya, cases involving former Indian Premier League boss Lalit Modi, who has been accused of laundering money collected for the cricketing extravaganza, promoters of leading jewellery brands in India, Nirav Modi and Mehul Choksi, who are caught in a fraud of epic proportions, are pending.
Lalit Modi and Mallya are in London and the whereabouts of Nirav Modi and Choksi are yet to be ascertained by Indian agencies.