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Two policemen were wounded in the attacks that lasted several hours as security personnel and insurgents exchanged gunfire.
Referring to the Eid ceasefire with the Taliban announced by his government this year, the Afghan president said the bold move was largely successful.
In northwestern Badghis province, five officers were killed, including Abdul Hakim, the police commander of a reserve unit, in an attack that took place near the provincial capital of Qala-i-Now.
The Taliban repeated their longstanding demand for the release of its prisoners in jails in Afghanistan, claiming as many as 2,000 are being held.
More than 100 Talibans attacked two security posts on Uruzgan province's main roadway on Tuesday evening.
Taliban spokesman Zabihullah Mujahid claimed responsibility for the group for the attacks in Kunduz and Jawzjan provinces.
These convicts were tried by the special military courts which also awarded imprisonment of varying terms to seven other militants.
He blamed the attack on the Taliban, saying around 10 insurgents were killed and five wounded during the ensuing gunbattle.
Jalaluddin Haqqani, whose son Sirajuddin Haqqani now heads the brutal group and is also the Taliban's deputy leader, died 'after a long battle with illness'.
Taliban's efforts to keep girls away from education in Pakistan was defeated by their very action of shooting her, says Malala Yousafzai, the world's youngest Nobel laureate.
Russia said that the Taliban will be joining the Sept. 4 talks in Moscow, along with representatives of several neighboring countries.
Pakistan's new Prime Minister Imran Khan is trying to settle foreign relations with Afganistan, US and India.
On Tuesday, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov told Russian media that representatives of the Taliban planned to take part in the Moscow peace talks.
Moscow supported an Afghan government offer of a three-month ceasefire, and regretted that the Taliban rejected the offer on Monday.
The mosque is near the presidential palace where Ghani was making his speech, which was being aired live on Facebook when the attack began.