Grammar for You

Recently, I had an encounter with a teacher of English. She said, “most students don’t speak English naturally.

Published: 18th April 2016 06:00 AM  |   Last Updated: 17th April 2016 10:35 AM   |  A+A-

Recently, I had an encounter with a teacher of English. She said, “most students don’t speak English naturally.  Is it because we don’t teach them the language the way we should teach it?  Is it because we focus more on written English?”

It is true that we focus more on written English.  Another important reason is that many English textbooks prescribed in India have dialogues and conversations that do not reflect the English used in real life.  As a result, we do not make the learners aware of the features of spoken grammar. 

ENGLISH.jpgWhat is spoken grammar? We don’t speak the way we write. When we are engaged in a conversation with someone, we violate many grammatical rules that are used in written English. In other words, we do not speak English like a book. If we speak English the way write, our speech will be quite unnatural. The spoken form of communication has certain characteristics: short and incomplete sentences, monosyllabic words, change of word order in questions, pauses, repetition, fillers, ellipsis, contractions, etc as in the dialogues from the movie Titanic below:

Jack: Rose! You’re so stupid. Why did you do that, huh? You’re so stupid. Why did you do that? Why?

Rose: You jump, I jump, right?

Jack: Right.

Rose: Oh God! I couldn’t go. I couldn’t go, Jack.

Rose: It’s getting quiet.

Jack: It’s just gonna take ‘em a few minutes to get the boats organised. I don’t know about you but I intend to ….

We can get the differences of spoken and written English grammar in the corpora such as

British National Corpus, American National

Corpus and Cambridge International Corpus. Analysis of spoken data in the corpora reveals that spoken grammar has many different unique features such as ellipsis, heads (left-dislocation), tails (right-dislocation), fillers, backchannels, phrasal chunks.  Here are some examples:

Did you have your lunch?  (no ellipsis)

Had your lunch? (ellipsis)

My class teacher, she is a nice person. (with head)              

My class teacher is a nice person. (no head)

My friend is a police officer, the one from Pune. (with tail). 

My friend from Pune is a police officer. (no tail)

Fillers:  hmm, um, er,..

Backchannels: oh, yeah, I see, ...

Phrasal chunks: sort of, kind of, stuff like that, I mean, a little bit …

If teachers of English teach the language based on spoken grammar, English language learners will learn to speak the language naturally.  For this to happen, the focus should change. 

Not learning features of spoken grammar can impede students’ ability to speak English fluently and appropriately - Mumford (2009)

Dr Albert P’ Rayan is an ELT Resource Person and Professor of English.

He can be contacted at


Disclaimer : We respect your thoughts and views! But we need to be judicious while moderating your comments. All the comments will be moderated by the editorial. Abstain from posting comments that are obscene, defamatory or inflammatory, and do not indulge in personal attacks. Try to avoid outside hyperlinks inside the comment. Help us delete comments that do not follow these guidelines.

The views expressed in comments published on are those of the comment writers alone. They do not represent the views or opinions of or its staff, nor do they represent the views or opinions of The New Indian Express Group, or any entity of, or affiliated with, The New Indian Express Group. reserves the right to take any or all comments down at any time.

flipboard facebook twitter whatsapp