CAMBODIAN GENOCIDE (1975): The communist-backed Khmer Rouge rule under the leadership of Pol Pot was responsible for the genocide of nearly two million Cambodians in four years. The regime forcefully relocated city dwellers to labour camps in the countrys
CAMBODIAN GENOCIDE (1975): The communist-backed Khmer Rouge rule under the leadership of Pol Pot was responsible for the genocide of nearly two million Cambodians in four years. The regime forcefully relocated city dwellers to labour camps in the countrys

101 years of Jallianwala Bagh massacre: Five other genocides, mass killings in history to know about

On this day in 1919, British troops under Brigadier Gen Dyer opened fire at unarmed civilians at Punjab's Jallianwala Bagh, killing around 400 people. As India commemorates the lives lost to the colonial cruelty, here are five other instances of mass killings that shocked the whole world.
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The 'prisoners' were taken to the 'Killing Fields', where they were either bludgeoned or hacked to death as the military wanted to save bullets. The victims were then buried in mass graves.  In one particular instance, some 20,000 were taken to the Security Prison 21 operated by the Khmer Rouge and when the regime finally fell, there were only 7 survivors. (Photo | AFP)
The 'prisoners' were taken to the 'Killing Fields', where they were either bludgeoned or hacked to death as the military wanted to save bullets. The victims were then buried in mass graves. In one particular instance, some 20,000 were taken to the Security Prison 21 operated by the Khmer Rouge and when the regime finally fell, there were only 7 survivors. (Photo | AFP)
TUTSI MASSACRES (1994): The Rwandan genocide or 'Tutsi genocide' was the direct result of a civil war in the African country and the Hutu community's racial hatred for the Tutsi population. Most of the victims were killed in their native towns and villages by neighbours who acted upon the call of the Hutu-led government and supporting militia groups. About 70% of the Tutsi population was wiped out in the brutality that lasted from 7 April – 15 July 1994. Total casualties are estimated between 500,000 to 1,000,000. (Photo | AP)
TUTSI MASSACRES (1994): The Rwandan genocide or 'Tutsi genocide' was the direct result of a civil war in the African country and the Hutu community's racial hatred for the Tutsi population. Most of the victims were killed in their native towns and villages by neighbours who acted upon the call of the Hutu-led government and supporting militia groups. About 70% of the Tutsi population was wiped out in the brutality that lasted from 7 April – 15 July 1994. Total casualties are estimated between 500,000 to 1,000,000. (Photo | AP)
Sexual violence was prominent during the days of violence as estimates show between 250,000 to 500,000 women were raped by the proprietors. Soldiers and policemen openly joined hands with militias in stopping people at check-posts where ID cards with ethnic details were checked. Tutsi people, irrespective of their age, was macheted or shot once identified. The killings came to an end only after the Rwandan Patriotic Front, supported by Tutsi rebels ended the civil war after claiming all places held by government supporters. (Photo | AFP)
Sexual violence was prominent during the days of violence as estimates show between 250,000 to 500,000 women were raped by the proprietors. Soldiers and policemen openly joined hands with militias in stopping people at check-posts where ID cards with ethnic details were checked. Tutsi people, irrespective of their age, was macheted or shot once identified. The killings came to an end only after the Rwandan Patriotic Front, supported by Tutsi rebels ended the civil war after claiming all places held by government supporters. (Photo | AFP)
INDONESIAN MASSACRES (1965): The 'Red Purge' carried out by the Indonesian Army and other 'death squads' between 1965 and '66 resulted in the organised mass killing of around one million people. The massacre was an attempt to free the country from increasing communist influence and hence targeted Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) members and sympathisers, along with ethnic Chinese population and the Abangan Javanese community. (Photo | AP)
INDONESIAN MASSACRES (1965): The 'Red Purge' carried out by the Indonesian Army and other 'death squads' between 1965 and '66 resulted in the organised mass killing of around one million people. The massacre was an attempt to free the country from increasing communist influence and hence targeted Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) members and sympathisers, along with ethnic Chinese population and the Abangan Javanese community. (Photo | AP)
The third-largest communist party in the world at that time,the PKI had approximately 300,000 cadres and full membership of around two million. According to Wikipedia, a top-secret CIA report from 1968 stated that the massacres 'rank as one of the worst mass murders of the 20th century.' Neighbourhoods in communist strongholds across the country were raided by the trained killing squads, abducting men from their houses and assaulting women - both physically and sexually. (Photo | AP)
The third-largest communist party in the world at that time,the PKI had approximately 300,000 cadres and full membership of around two million. According to Wikipedia, a top-secret CIA report from 1968 stated that the massacres 'rank as one of the worst mass murders of the 20th century.' Neighbourhoods in communist strongholds across the country were raided by the trained killing squads, abducting men from their houses and assaulting women - both physically and sexually. (Photo | AP)
AARDAKH MASSACRE (1944): As the second world war waged on, Joseph Stalin's forces launched 'Operation Lentil' in the North Caucasus region of the Soviet Union that resulted in the death of 123,000–200,000 Chechens and Ingush community members. It was a direct response to the German-backed insurgency earlier in the province. (Photo | hero1914.com)
AARDAKH MASSACRE (1944): As the second world war waged on, Joseph Stalin's forces launched 'Operation Lentil' in the North Caucasus region of the Soviet Union that resulted in the death of 123,000–200,000 Chechens and Ingush community members. It was a direct response to the German-backed insurgency earlier in the province. (Photo | hero1914.com)
Following the failed uprisal, Soviet secret police group 'People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs' (NKVD) personnel were ordered to deport the Chechens and Ingush people to different parts of the Soviet Union to avoid any future ethnic reprisals as the communist regime wanted 'Russification' to be implemented. Several million were transferred to labour camps and places in Kyrgis and Kazakh territories. While a quarter of the total deported population perished under different circumstances, unarmed thousands were said to round up and executed by the Russian forces.   (Photo | Twitter)
Following the failed uprisal, Soviet secret police group 'People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs' (NKVD) personnel were ordered to deport the Chechens and Ingush people to different parts of the Soviet Union to avoid any future ethnic reprisals as the communist regime wanted 'Russification' to be implemented. Several million were transferred to labour camps and places in Kyrgis and Kazakh territories. While a quarter of the total deported population perished under different circumstances, unarmed thousands were said to round up and executed by the Russian forces. (Photo | Twitter)
EAST PAKISTAN VIOLENCE (1971): Pakistan's 'Operation Searchlight' was launched in 1971 to suppress the Bengali nationalist movement in erstwhile East Pakistan, but turned out to become a brutal attack on civilians. Indian and Bangladeshi sources state, backed by the Jamaat-e-Islami and other Islamic groups, the Pak military accounts for the killing of Bengalis estimated between 300,000 3,000,000 and the rape of over  200,000 women. (Photo | Beautiful Bangladesh)
EAST PAKISTAN VIOLENCE (1971): Pakistan's 'Operation Searchlight' was launched in 1971 to suppress the Bengali nationalist movement in erstwhile East Pakistan, but turned out to become a brutal attack on civilians. Indian and Bangladeshi sources state, backed by the Jamaat-e-Islami and other Islamic groups, the Pak military accounts for the killing of Bengalis estimated between 300,000 3,000,000 and the rape of over 200,000 women. (Photo | Beautiful Bangladesh)
General Tikka Khan of Pakistan was called the 'Butcher of Bengal'  by Time Magazine for his role in 'Searchlight'. The military hoped for a quick victory, eliminating all opposition. However, stiff Bengali resistance backed by India made sure Pakistan lost all major towns in the area sooner or later. The massacres of Jathibhanga and Chuknagar are among the most notorious acts carried out by the Pak military, targeting the minority Hindu population. (Photo | AFP)
General Tikka Khan of Pakistan was called the 'Butcher of Bengal' by Time Magazine for his role in 'Searchlight'. The military hoped for a quick victory, eliminating all opposition. However, stiff Bengali resistance backed by India made sure Pakistan lost all major towns in the area sooner or later. The massacres of Jathibhanga and Chuknagar are among the most notorious acts carried out by the Pak military, targeting the minority Hindu population. (Photo | AFP)
The conflict resulted in the displacement of over eight million people, mostly Hindus. However, Urdu speaking minorities fell victim to atrocities of Bengali mobs around the same time as well, resulting in the death of thousands. (Photo | AFP)
The conflict resulted in the displacement of over eight million people, mostly Hindus. However, Urdu speaking minorities fell victim to atrocities of Bengali mobs around the same time as well, resulting in the death of thousands. (Photo | AFP)

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