There are various schools of theories that are designed to help people overcome depression. Talk therapies, where an analyst converses with the patient to find out the root of problems, are often the most sought-after.
Psychoanalysis therapy: Developed by Sigmund Freud, psychoanalysis is considered the mother of all talk therapies. This treatment centres on the dynamics between the patient and analyst who probes the patient’s psyche and brings unconscious impulses and behaviour patterns to the surface. For example, if the person who cannot make decisions, he actually starts demonstrating the same behaviour right in front of his therapist.
Psychodynamic Therapy: One may not dig as deep as in psychoanalysis, but treatment still focuses on the unconscious, personal development, and the relationship between the therapist and patient. They hold to the same basic premises, but the techniques are different and the goals are more limited.
Cognitive TherapY: It targets negative thoughts resulting in depression. During treatment, the patient learns how to recognise harmful or irrational thoughts and replace them with more constructive ones. Unlike psychoanalysis, cognitive therapy is geared towards solving immediate problems.
Behaviour Therapy: As cognitive therapy targets negative thoughts, behaviour therapy can help one overcome problems by changing their behaviour. For example, one common technique to treat anxiety disorders and phobias is “desensitisation”, in which a patient is gradually exposed to (or asked to imagine) anxiety-inducing situations as a way to become more comfortable with them. Behaviour therapy is often paired with cognitive therapy in cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), an umbrella term that refers to many methods that incorporate both techniques.
Interpersonal Therapy: This method is designed to target problems arising out of interpersonal conflicts and a lack of social support. In this therapy, patients closely examine their relationships with family, friends, co-workers, and other key people, with the goal of resolving interpersonal conflicts, improving communication, and building a more solid support network.