South Korea, seeking a 10th consecutive World Cup appearance, is the only team from the eastern zone in Group A, which also includes Iran, United Arab Emirates, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon.
The former Everton and Millwall attacker, who retired from international football in November, said he is planning a move into coaching.
The former Everton striker, one of the finest players to come out of Australia, did not say if he would continue playing club football.
Australia must beat Peru on Tuesday to have any chance of going further.
With just one point from two games, the Socceroos' chances of advancing in Russia now appear slim.
The biggest positive for Australia was 19-year-old Daniel Arzani, who scored just 67 seconds after he was introduced as a substitute in the 73rd minute.
His decision came after Football Federation Australia informed him they did not have the budget to hire a large team of new assistants.
Cahill is the Socceroos' all-time top scorer, with 50 goals, and has 105 caps for Australia, a record for an outfield player.
Van Marwijk's reputation as a tournament specialist was tarnished at Euro 2012, when his Dutch side failed to win a game.
Australia coach Bert van Marwijk watched his new charges lose 4-1 to Norway on a freezing night in Oslo on Friday.
Cahill, Australia's most prolific international scorer with 50 goals, left the domestic A-League in January to join Millwall.
Ange Postecoglou quit on Wednesday as Socceroos coach a week after Australia beat Honduras to qualify for 2018 World Cup.
An emotional Postecoglou said he will not take Australia to the World Cup next year after a lengthy qualification campaign.
Tim Cahill said he had to make some big decisions on the level of where he's playing at and what he's going to do.