All emergency establishments and essential services, including hospitals, medical stores, relief and rescue work and people attending to personal emergencies will be exempted.
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Manipur were among the states where the Congress organised protests in some parts.
No public functions would be allowed, it said. Only emergency services, including ambulances and fire services, would be allowed to function during the bandh, it added.
In a statement, the SKM said the bandh will start at 6 am and it will remain in force till 4 pm.
About 300 farm unions and members of organisations that work for the welfare of women, labourers, tribals as well as youth and students participated.
On Thursday, the farmers' protest against the three contentious laws completed nine months since they first arrived at the Delhi borders.
Bharat bandh: Farmers block highways, roads in Punjab, Haryana; rail services hit; partial response elsewhere
The Samkyukta Kisan Morcha (SKM), which is spearheading the farmers' stir, termed the bandh a "big success" and claimed that shutdown was observed in many parts of the country.
Various organisations such as AITUC, AIUTUC, BKMU, Left parties and the Congress extended their support to the nationwide bandh called to protest the three new farm laws.
Farmer unions protesting the laws have called for a complete 'Bharat Bandh' from 6 am to 6 pm on Friday which marks four months of the farmer agitation on Delhi's borders.
The Samkyukta Kisan Morcha has called for the bandh from 6 am to 6 pm to mark four months of the farmers' agitation at Delhi's three borders -- Singhu, Ghazipur and Tikri.
State govt, Oppn TDP extend support to agitation; RTC to cancel services till noon
Farmer leaders have said road and rail transport will be blocked and claimed that markets will also remain closed.
The Delhi Police has said adequate security arrangements have been put in place in view of the bandh.
Former CM H D Kumaraswamy urged the State Government to withdraw cases against farmer leader Rakesh Tikait, for his speeches during raitha mahapanchayats in the state.
The Samyukta Kisan Morcha, a joint front representing farmer unions, has called for a "Bharat Bandh" on Friday.