China is the world's largest greenhouse gas emitter and the US is the second-largest.
The leadership summit brought together senior government officials, business leaders, and experts from India, the US, and South Asia.
He also met Environment Minister Prakash Javadekar and discussed a range of issues, including climate finance, joint research and collaboration.
Kerry is on a four-day visit to India, from April 5 to April 8, during which he will meet representatives from the Union government, the private sector and NGOs.
As per a spokesperson at the US Embassy, Kerry is travelling to Abu Dhabi, New Delhi, and Dhaka from April 1-9 for consultations on increasing climate ambition.
John Kerry will be in India from April 5-8 during which he will discuss the upcoming Leaders' Summit on Climate.
This will be Kerry’s first trip to Asia since assuming office earlier this year. He will be travelling to the UAE, India and Bangladesh between April 1 and 9.
The U.S. move followed a threat last week from Secretary of State John Kerry after new Russian and Syrian attacks on the city of Aleppo.