The UN Security Council overwhelmingly rejected a Russian resolution calling for condemnation of "aggression" by US-led forces against Syria.
The three countries had carried out a wave of pre-dawn missile strikes, hitting targets near Damascus and in Homs province, Western officials said.
For all of the Kremlin's big talk and bluster, a military response is unlikely, with Moscow expected to stick to a barrage of diplomatic protests, experts say.
Turkey on Saturday welcomed Western strikes targeting Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's regime as an "appropriate response" to a suspected chemical attack that left dozens dead.
Saudi Arabia extends full support to US-led airstrikes on Syria, calls it retaliation for regime 'crimes'
A statement, carried by the official Saudi Press Agency, said the strikes were prompted by the "Syrian regime's use of chemical weapons against innocent civilians, including women and children".
Syrian President Bashar al-Assad said Western strikes on government military installations Saturday only made him more keen to fight back against his opponents.
The US and its allies fired more than 100 cruise missiles at Syria, a significant number of which were intercepted by Syrian air defences, the Russian defence ministry said today.
Punitive US-led strikes on Syria are justified because of the "murderous actions" of the Damascus government, an Israeli official said.
France wants to start working "right now" on resuming the political process aimed at ending the conflict in Syria.
Canadian Prime Minister Justin has expressed his support for punitive strikes carried out by the US, Britain and France against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's regime.