The 22-year-old Surrey batsman had been sidelined for three months after he underwent surgery on the same shoulder last year.
The 38-year-old ended the fourth day of the final Test between England and Pakistan a wicket short of the elusive 600-wicket mark.
After winning the toss, England lost both of its opening batsmen, Rory Burns (6) and Dom Sibley (22), to leave Crawley and captain Joe Root to rebuild the innings.
Fast bowler Jofra Archer was recalled by England in place of Sam Curran in the only change from the drawn second test on the same ground in Southampton.
Broad was dropped for the first test — won by the West Indies in Southampton — and didn't take it well, expressing his disappointment in a TV interview.
West Indies won the toss and chose to bowl first against England in the deciding test of the series at Old Trafford on Friday.
Don't see how Jofra Archer can play third Test against West Indies: Ex-England captain Nasser Hussain
Jofra Archer had earlier revealed facing racist abuse on social media in the aftermath of the mistake he committed.
Jason Holder said that the team is experienced enough to get back up from the defeat and challenge Joe Root and Co.
Curtly Ambrose said something has gone terribly wrong with batsman Shai Hope since his famous centuries at Headingley.
Set 430 to win, Australia were skittled out for just 107 late on the fourth day at Newlands Stadium in Cape Town.
Karthik, who has not played a Test since January 2010, kept wickets in the final session after Patel injured his right index finger.
Kohli said India's performance on a pitch designed to help South Africa's fast bowlers showed they could win in any conditions.
India bowled out South Africa for 177 runs in their second innings on fourth and penultimate day to claim a consolatory 63-win in the third and final Test here on Saturday.
Australia were 549 for four in their first innings by stumps, with Smith on 229 and Marsh on 181, having seized total control to lead England by 146 runs with six wickets still in hand.
Rivals and team-mates alike were left in awe of Steve Smith after the world's top-ranked Test batsman hit new heights in the third Ashes match against England at the WACA Ground on Saturday.