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Aaron Finch is already in charge of the Twenty20 team and takes over from Paine who averaged just 7.2 in Australia's 5-0 ODI series rout by England in June.
Sarfraz claimed Australia weren't ready for Abbas, who was also named man-of-the-series on Pakistan's trip to England earlier this year.
Pakistan's only series loss in United Arab Emirates - their neutral venue since attacks on the Sri Lankan team bus in 2009 forced them to play here - was last year.
Pakistan will be forced to make a change after regular opener Imam-ul-Haq fractured his finger in the first Test and was ruled out, opening an option to bring Azhar as opener.
Hafeez, a late inclusion in the squad after a double hundred in a domestic match, led the run-feast with a knock of 126 -- his 10th Test hundred.
Australia have won only one out of 17 Tests in Asia since 2007 as they struggled against spin in India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
Australia have for the first time named two Test cricket vice-captains -- all-rounder Mitchell Marsh and fast bowler Josh Hazlewood -- as they look to move on from a major cheating scandal.
The first Test is in Dubai from October 7 with the second in Abu Dhabi from October 16.
Among the five debutants are Queensland trio Michael Neser, Brendan Doggett and Marnus Labuschagne, South Australia's Travis Head and Victoria's Aaron Finch.
The player charter is being developed in the wake of a ball-tampering scandal in March that rocked the game and cost captain Steve Smith and his deputy David Warner their jobs.
Finch displayed an impressive form in the recently-concluded T20I tri-series, emerging as the leading run-scorer after smashing 306 runs at the strike rate of 201.31 in five innings.
Finch was involved as England completed their first 5-0 sweep of Australia in any format in more than 140 years of men's cricket between the arch-rivals.
Buttler scored 275 runs in the ODI series against Australia with three not-outs including scores of 91*, 54* and 110*.
Australia have won the World Cup five times and Paine believes they can draw on a reservoir of knockout knowledge come next year's edition.
Australia too made just the one change, with fast bowler Billy Stanlake, fit again after a toe injury, replacing fellow paceman Kane Richardson.