BENGALURU: There is growing burden of diabetes in India. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) estimated that the country already had around 65.1 million diabetes patients.
As per a survey by National Center for Biotechnology Information in Bangalore, the prevalence of diabetes was 12.33 per cent and of pre-diabetes was 11.57 per cent of the total population.
Increasing age, being overweight and obese, sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy and untimely dietary habits have well proven association with prevalence of diabetes Pre-diabetes is a condition that predates diabetes mellitus. In pre-diabetes stage the levels of blood glucose are higher than normal but, remain below diabetic range.
The condition is very common among Asians, especially Indians and data from different sources across the countries showed that nearly 20 per cent of urban Indians are prone to it. Certain lifestyle changes taken in pre-diabetes stage can prevent diabetes.
Diabetic patients with uncontrolled sugars usually suffer from increased frequency of urination, weight loss and extreme fatigue, but in pre-diabetes stage, the patient normally does not have any symptoms. A regular monitoring referred to as screening test would be the only way to diagnose the condition.
Causes and Risk factors
Insulin is an essential element to transport glucose that the body produces to convert into energy. In pre-diabetes, the body is not able to produce enough insulin or is not able to function efficiently, also called ‘insulin resistance’ leading to a higher-than-normal blood sugar level and possibly pre-diabetes.
Prevention and treatment
Pre-diabetes is the warning sign before it progresses to become type 2 diabetes. It is complex, multi-factorial, hugely influenced by genetic predisposition, lifestyle factors and excessive calorie intake.
Eating well, eating healthy and regular exercise helps prevent progression of pre-diabetic patients to Type 2 diabetes. It is observed that consumption of vegetables had a significant connection with diabetes.
People who consumed more than two servings of vegetable had lesser prevalence of diabetes. Many studies have shown that use of consuming high water soluble fibers present in vegetable and fruits and polyunsaturated fat in fish, help in preventing diabetes.
Similarly, people at risk of and also those identified with pre-diabetes would benefit from lifestyle a change that includes weight loss and exercise for at least 30 minutes every day. This can improve insulin resistance and can lower elevated blood sugar levels diabetes.
The author is a Consultant Diabetologist & Endocrinologist, Fortis Hospital, Bannerghatta Road