HYDERABAD: Diabetes, one of the most common non-communicable diseases (NCD) has become a major health concern in India. Type 2 diabetes, which is triggered by sedentary lifestyle and bad eating habits, is hitting Indians at a much younger age group of between 18 to 30 years. Statistics state that India has 67 million diabetes cases. It is estimated that by 2030, India will have around 100 million diabetic patients.
As per the recent Abnormality Report done by Indus Health Plus, the preventive health check-up specialist from January to October 2014 revealed that maximum number of diabetes cases was observed in the age bracket of 20 years to 35 years.
In Hyderabad, 35 per cent of total number of detections for diabetes was found in the age group of 25 to 40 years in males and females. Over the last five years, there has been an increase by 12 per cent in the cases among males and 15 per cent increase in females.
Consequences of the lifestyle disorder
One of the side effects of diabetes is Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), an important cause of avoidable blindness caused by diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy is complication of diabetes affecting small blood vessels of retina at the back of the eye which is the layer responsible for sight.
Those at risk
People with longer duration of diabetes, poor blood sugar control, high blood pressure and smokers, those with lipid abnormalities etc are at higher risk of developing DR.
How it affects?
In DR, there is accumulation of glucose in the inner layer cells of blood vessels with increased thickening of basement membrane. This results in failure of pumping mechanism of blood vessels. This in turn leads to accumulation of protein deposits in the inner layers of retina which leads to loss of transparency of the retina thus affecting the vision.
Who can screen for DoctoR?
Portable indigenous cameras can effectively screen for DR at the primary eye care/ health care settings without the need of an expert examining the fundus.
Screening for DR is essential at the time of diagnosis in people with Type 2 diabetes (Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellius) and at five years after diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes (Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus). DR screening is also important in gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy) in the first trimester.
Dr Padmaja Kumari Rani, Consultant, Smt Kanuri Santhamma Centre for Vitreoretinal Diseases L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad
Diabetes : Facts and Figures
About 35 crore people worldwide have diabetes.
In 2004, about 34 lakh people died worldwide from consequences of high blood sugar.
More than 80% of diabetes- related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries, including India.
Diabetes is predicted to become the seventh leading cause of death in the world by the year 2030.
There are two major forms of diabetes,
Type 1 and Type 2.
Type 1 diabetes is characterised by a lack of insulin production and type 2 diabetes results from the body’s ineffective use of insulin.
Type 2 Diabetes is common in those who are overweight, who do not do exercise and lead a sedentary lifestyle. Another type of diabetes is gestational diabetes characterized by raised blood sugar, which has first appeared or been recognized during pregnancy. Diabetes is a leading cause of blindness, amputation and kidney failure, world wide.
India is the diabetes capital of the world. It is estimated that currently there are four crore people with diabetes in India and by 2025 this number will increase to seven crores. This would mean every fifth diabetic in the world would be an Indian.
Dr. Ravi Sankar Erukulapati
MBBS, MRCP (UK), CCT- General Internal Medicine (UK), CCT - Diabetes & Endocrinology (UK)
Consultant Endocrinologist, Apollo Hospitals- Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad
Reducing progression from prediabetes to diabetes
It has been observed in the diabetes prevention trials, that people who lost 5 to 7 per cent of their body weight lowered their risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. That is because weight loss helps your body use insulin more effectively. Every kilo you lose lowers your risk of getting diabetes.
What you eat has a big impact on your health especially if you’re overweight. By making wise food choices, you can help control your body weight, blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol.
Make a plan to change something that you do or something you eat. Keep track of what you eat and drink. Keep track of physical activity, maintain a daily record of amount spent in activity. A simple device like pedometer can help you assess the amount of work done .
Dr Sridevi Paladugu, MD DM
Apollo Hospitals, Hyderguda.