With the first vaccines rolling out for limited inoculations in the US and elsewhere, the race is clearly on between countries to begin the process of mass vaccination. Here’s a look at some of the specific vaccines and the countries that have ordered them in bulk as they prepare to begin the process of inoculation.
Pfizer-Biontech: The dosage consists of two shots 21 days apart. Trials showed it is approximately 95% effective. People in the UK, US and a few other countries have already started receiving the first of two jabs under the Emergency Use Authorisation programme.
The vaccine is based around cutting edge mRNA. The one big potential problem of this vaccine is that it can be stored at temperature levels below -70 degree celsius. The research first began as early as 11 months ago when Covid-19 wasn’t even declared a pandemic.
EU 300mn, Japan 120mn, US 100mn, UK 40mn
Astrazeneca-Oxford: Two doses a month apart, with trials showing different efficacy results (people who had received a half first dose had 90% efficacy while the ones who had received the full dose had 62%) but this wasn’t the plan. Late-stage trial numbers expected within the next month.
It can be stored in a refrigerator for six months. Known as Covidshield in India, the Serum Institute of India did apply to the Indian government for Emergency Use Authorisation. Likely to be cheap and because it’s easy to store, most of the developing world have hung on their hat on the efficacy of this vaccine. Has since tied up with the Russian vaccine developers to see if that collaboration can result in a better efficacy rate. a
US 500mn, India 500mn, EU 400mn
Novavax: Two doses, three weeks apart. Trials for a Covid-19 vaccine began in May, with initial numbers proving to be good. Numbers from ongoing Phase 3 trials in a few countries expected to come in the first quarter of 2021. What’s of interest is that the US-based company have already entered into a huge agreement with Serum Institute of India for the production of as many 2 billion doses by 2021 end.
India 1bn USA 110mn Canada 76mn UK 60m
SPUTNIK V: Two shots, three weeks apart. Came out with a statement on Monday which put their efficacy at 91.4%. Clinical trials began in June. Has to be stored in a freezer. It has been introduced for emergency use in Russia some time ago.
India 100mn, Brazil 50mn, Uzbekistan 35mn, Mexico 32mn
Johnson & Johnson: A one-shot vaccine at this point, with trials launched back in September. Will have a potential advantage over other developers if their one-shot jab works because of the ease of storage plus it requires only one shot. Phase 3 trials were paused to investigate an adverse reaction in October. Phase 3 results are expected in January. Simultaneously, the company is also working on trials to look into the efficacy over two jabs of the vaccine.
EU 200mn, US 100mn, Canada 38mn, UK 30mn
Moderna: Two dosages split by a month. Trials showed an over 94% efficacy rate. Is expected to receive nod for emergency use authorisation in the US in a few days. Like PfizerBioNTech, vaccine tech is based around mRNA. It can be stored at around -20 degree Celsius for up to six months. Began researching and developing from January, vaccine efforts funded by the US govt and developed in parnership with National Institutes of Health
EU 160mn, US 100mn, Canada 56mn, UK 50mn
Six stages of a vaccine: Usually, the vaccine has six stages from the time of research to full approval. The first is preclinical testing before the three phases of trials — Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 — finish. In the interim, if the results for the trials are out and if the regulators like the numbers, they will sanction Emergency Use Authorisation for the vaccine. It’s where the likes of the PfizerBioNTech vaccine are at this stage. After this, countries decide to give full approval for mass inoculation