Lionel Messi hit the upright in the 20th minute and Antoine Griezmann wasted a great chance on the half-hour mark.
Manchester United won 2-1 against LASK Linz on Wednesday to complete a 7-1 aggregate win over the Austrian club, five months after the first leg was played.
Diego Simeone's side could be overtaken on Sunday by Sevilla, who visit Celta Vigo, but the coach welcomed the return to form.
Madrid pulled level on points with leader Barcelona, which was held to a 2-2 draw at Espanyol hours later.
Ryad Boudebouz scored an 87th-minute equalizer as Real Betis came back from two goals down to draw with Getafe 2-2 in the Spanish league on Friday.
Barcelona's record signing Ousmane Dembele will be out of action for up to four months due to a hamstring injury he suffered at Getafe.
Paulinho scored his first goal for Barcelona late in the second half of a 2-1 win over Getafe, upholding the club's perfect start to the Spanish league on Saturday.
Barcelona coach Ernesto Valverde could make changes in defense with Sergi Roberto, Aleix Vidal and Lucas Digne.