The leaflet shows PM Modi in a handshake with UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson at the G7 Summit in 2019 with the message 'Don't risk a Tory MP who is not on your side'.
The former MP said the Conservative Party under Johnson was 'reactionary, populist, nationalistic and sometimes even xenophobic'.
The results of Thursday's election in Hartlepool showed the Conservative candidate Jill Mortimer winning with 15,529 votes, or nearly 52% of the vote.
Earlier, Dhesi sent a letter, signed by over 100 MPs and Lords, to the PM on the ongoing farmers' protests, asking him to raise this matter with his Indian counterpart.
The Opposition leader has previously had to self-isolate in mid-September when a member of his household showed possible symptoms of the deadly virus.
The Labour Party has been plagued by allegations of antisemitism over the years, with its disastrous electoral defeat in the December 2019 election also linked to the crisis.
Forty-four per cent said they do not believe the party takes the issue of rising Islamophobia seriously, and 48 per cent said they have lost confidence in the party's complaints structures.