The wild version of the virus now exists only in Afghanistan and Pakistan, but a type of vaccine that contains small amounts of weakened but live polio still causes occasional outbreaks elsewhere.
Health Minister Parsadi Lal Meena had appealed for the drive to be held on February 27, saying polio can be eradicated only by administering its vaccine to the children.
In recent years, Pakistani militants have targeted polio teams and police escorting them, claiming falsely that the anti-polio drive is part of a Western conspiracy to sterilize children.
The Union Health Ministry has recently placed a purchase order with SII for 54 lakh doses of IPV vaccine.
The minister also shared a photo where returnees could be seen getting jabs at the Delhi international airport.