Trump, who has softened his past criticism of China, again lambasted past US administrations for allowing the $350 billion trade deficit to balloon over the years.
The agreement was among the more than $250 billion in agreements announced at a ceremony attended by Trump and Chinese leader Xi Jinping.
The two leaders met in Beijing's Great Hall of the People for talks following the US president's glitzy royal welcome in the Chinese capital.
US President Donald Trump decried his country's "one-sided and unfair" trade deficit with Beijing on Thursday, but he told Chinese President Xi Jinping: "I don't blame China."
During his informal meeting with Xi inside the Forbidden City, President Donald Trump used a tablet computer to show Xi a video of his granddaughter Arabella singing in Mandarin.
Washington accuses Beijing of backsliding on market-opening promises, and Trump said last week that the U.S. trade deficit with China - USD 347 billion last year - is "so bad that it's embarrassing."