Vettel drove into the back of Verstappen's Red Bull after the Dutchman had passed him, ruining his hopes of a podium finish.
The incident involving Verstappen and Leclerc was under investigation by the race stewards, who confirmed the result nearly three hours after the race ended.
It also showed that one week on from the dreary procession at the French Grand Prix, Formula One remains a sport that can produce a thrilling spectacle in the right conditions and at the right circuit
The 21-year-old Dutchman, who won last year’s race at the Spielberg circuit, recovered after dropping to seventh
Verstappen voiced his anger after at least three cars overtook him, meaning he failed to get one last, flying lap in.
Christian Horner described Max Verstappen’s triumph in Sunday’s Mexican Grand Prix as ‘an incredible achievement’ but lamented Daniel Ricciardo’s enforced retirement.
Max Verstappen was given a five seconds penalty after a thrilling late passing move on Kimi Raikkonen of Ferrari.
Verstappen claimed Formula One's stewards were killing the sport after he was demoted from a podium finish in US Grand Prix.
Verstappen capped a perfect birthday weekend with victory in the Malaysian Grand Prix and then hailed his Red Bull team.
Verstappen overtook pole-sitter Hamilton on lap four before clinching the second victory of his career and first this season.