After Broad, it was young speedster Jofra Archer who impressed all by picking up 22 wickets in the four matches he played.
Anderson, England's all-time leading wicket-taker, has not bowled in the series since breaking down with the injury after sending down just four overs in Australia's 251-run win in the first Test.
Surrey left-arm seamer Sam Curran, who did not play at Lord's, retained his place in a 12-man squad for the third Test, which starts at England captain Joe Root's Headingley home ground on Thursday.
England's record wicket-taker broke down after just four overs in the series opener at Edgbaston and did not bowl again as Australia romped to a 251-run victory.
World Cup winners England, set an imposing target of 398 to win, collapsed to 97-7 in the post-lunch session on the fifth and final day before being bowled out for 146.
The 37-year-old is now awaiting the results of a scan and could miss the remaining part of the Edgbaston Test.
Australia great Glenn McGrath believes that James Anderson's form will determine the destination of the Ashes.
Steve Harmison said England had the trump cards going into the Ashes with their two experienced bowlers.
The opening bowler has failed to recover from the injury sustained when playing for his county Lancashire against Durham on July 2.
Test skipper Joe Root is the highest-ranked batsman on either side in sixth place while Jonny Bairstow and Jos Buttler are in 26th and 27th places, respectively.
Birmingham's Edgbaston will be the venue for the opening match of a five-Test Ashes series at the start of next month.
Anderson is only the second bowler, after legendary Sri Lankan spinner, Muttiah Muralitharan, to have claimed 100 Test wickets at a single venue.
India slumped to 130 all out in their second innings, with James Anderson taking his 100th Test wicket at Lord's en route to four for 23.
Anderson, England's all-time leading Test wicket-taker, removed both India openers before lunch and Broad followed up in the second session.
Anderson took his 27th Test five-wicket haul, picking 5/20, as India were bowled out for 107 runs with rain intervening thrice during this innings.